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Mold/Yeast/ Mycotoxin Testing

Mold/Yeast/ Mycotoxin Testing


Mold Counts     
10-10,000Relatively Safe    
10,000-100,000Transition Zone    
100,000-10,000,000Caution Advised    
Over 10,000,000Feeding may not be recommended.  
Yeast Counts     
<1,000,000ok for hay, dry corns or grainResults:Smell
<4,000,000-5,000,000ok for corn silage or haylage Stomach upset-off feed
<20,000,000ok for HMSC   May be able to neutralize with buffer
>1,000,000on fermented feeds may indicate unstable feed 
MoldColor Toxin Producer Comments
PenicilliumBlue/Green Yes Several potential toxins associated with certain species. Most common toxin producer in silage.
AspergillusYellow/Green Yes/Aflatoxin Found in drought, heat stress conditions or insect infected fields.
FusariumRed/White/Pink Yes/Zearalenone  Vomitoxin           T-2 Toxin       Fumonism Common in cold, wet seasons, certain strains produce extremely potent toxins.
MucorWhite No Found especially in sealed corn.  Grow at low temps.
RhizopusBlack No Requires high moisture and an advanced decay mold.
CladosporiumWhite No Symptoms simmilar to yeast. Grow at low temps.
Aflatoxin - 20 ppb (Upper Limit) Molds which can produce Aflatoxin:
        Aspergillus flavus     Most Common
        Asperfillus parasitticus     Most Common
 Cattle (sc/cs/hay)Dairy Cows Swine
Low Level<5.0 ppb <20.0 ppb ---------
Moderate-High5.0 ppb - 10.0 ppb20.0 ppb - 100.0 ppb---------
High Level20.0 ppb or More 100.0 ppb or More---------
Zearalenone - 6.0 ppm (Upper Limit) Molds which can produce Zearaelenone:
        Fusarium graminearum     Most Common
 Cattle (sc/cs/hay) Swine (sm grain)
Low Level<1000 ppb         <1.0 ppm<200 ppb    <.20 ppm
Moderate-High1100-5500 ppb    1.1-5.5 ppm<450 ppb    <.45 ppm
High Level>6000 ppb         >6.6 ppm<500 ppb    <.50 ppm
Vomitoxin - 6.0 ppm (Upper Limit) Molds which can produce Vomitoxin:
        Fusarium species     Most Common
 Cattle (sc/cs/hay) Swine (sm grain)
Low Level<1.0 ppm  <1.0 ppm
Moderate-High1.1 - 5.9 ppm  Approx 1.0 ppm
High Level>6.0 ppm  > 1.0 ppm
T - 2 Toxin - 500 ppb ( Upper Limit) Mold which can produes T - 2 toxin:
        Fusarium species     Most Common
 Cattle (sc/cs/hay) Swine (sm grain)
Low Level<150 ppb     <.15 ppm --------- 
Moderate-High<450 ppb     <.45 ppm --------- 
High Level>500 ppb     >.50 ppm --------- 

With the wet fall conditions, yeast, mold and mycotocins are a concern for many producers.  Below are links to several recent papers and presenations from academic staff regarding these issues.

Mold and mycotoxin problems in livestock feeding

by Richard S. Adams, Kenneth B. Kephart, Virginia A. Ishler, Lawrence J. Hutchinson and Gregory W. Rothe

The 2009 Wisconsin Corn Crop

by Patrick Hoffman, Randy Shaver and Paul Esker

Dealing with High Yeast Levels in High Moisture Corn and Corn Silage

By Matt Glewen, Limin Kung, R.D. Shaver, and P.C. Hoffman

Corn Ear Molds and Mycotoxins in the Field
by Paul Esker